The flag of Vietnam was designed in 1940 with a large yellow star in the center of the red background and has been used for from an uprising against French period. The width of the flag is two third the length. Five peaks of the yellow star lie on a circle which its center in the middle of the flag and its radius is one third the width. The red color symbolizes for the red blood stream to remind the sacrifices for fatherland of ancestor, the yellow color symbolized for the yellow skin and the pentagram symbolized for the unity of Vietnamese classes.
The capital of Vietnam currently is Hanoi which lies in the heart of the Red River Delta. Its architecture is blended between the eastern culture and the western culture. Whenever travelers come to Hanoi city, they can wander through 36 streets in the Old Quarter, visit the Temple of Literature, Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, Hoan Kiem Lake, Park of Reunification, etc.
Hanoi has been selected as one of the top ten cities for food, there are abundant dishes for travelers to enjoy the culinary of Hanoi such as Pho Bo (beef noodle soup), “banh cuon Thanh Tri”, “cha ca La Vong” – grilled fish, “bun cha”, “bun nem”, “bun moc”, etc.
There are many unofficial symbols of Vietnam:
Long time ago, “Chim Lac” – a kind of bird only appearing in stories was found in the surface of ancient bronze drums and it was the symbol of the Vietnamese forbidden kingdom – “Lac Viet”.
Nowadays, there are many opinions suggesting the lotus should be the symbol of Vietnam. Although this flower lives near mud, it still keeps its pure and its delicate aroma just like Vietnamese people:
- Bamboo trees symbolizes for the unyielding, the indomitable of Vietnamese when they face difficulties. Moreover bamboo trees always grow together. This stand for the unity of Vietnamese.
- The image of buffalo symbolizes for the diligence, the hard – working of Vietnamese.
The national anthem of Vietnam is “Tien Quan Ca” which is composed by Van Cao. The song brings an epic, vibrant, glorious atmosphere of the period when Vietnamese fought for their homeland.
Vietnam is located on the eastern margin of the Indochina. It borders the Gulf of Thailand, the Gulf of Tonkin and South China Sea, alongside China, Laos, and Cambodia.
The area of Vietnam is 331.212km² including about 327.480km² in land and more than 4.200km² in inland sea which containing more than 2800 islands, Truong Sa , Hoang Sa and the length of the coastline is 3,260km.
Vietnamese is the national, official language of Vietnam. It is the native language of more than 85 percent Vietnamese people; in addition, it is also the second language of many ethnic minorities of Vietnam.
Although Vietnam is in the tropical region, there are four main climates in Vietnam:
- The northern climate: This area including the north region and the north of Hoanh Son range has a humid subtropical climate with four marked seasons: spring, summer, fall and winter. However, this climate is instable in temperature, the time starting and ending of seasons
- The southern climate: this territory including Tay Nguyen and the south has a Tropical savanna climate with two main seasons: the wet season and the dry season.
- Truong Son climate: this area stretching from the south of Hoanh Son range to Phan Thiet has a tropical monsoon climate.
- The East sea climate: The Vietnamese East Sea has a relatively homogeneous trait. The sea always has the wind.
There are 54 ethnic groups in which 53 are ethnic minority in Vietnam. The largest ethnic groups is Kinh ( Viet) 86.2 percent and the percentage of other ethnic groups are Tay 1.9 percent; Tai 1.7 percent; Muong 1.5 percent; Khmer Krom 1.4 percent; Hoa percent; Nung 1.1 percent; Hmong percent; others 4.1 percent.
The census of 2013 recorded the population of Vietnam as standing at approximately 92.5 million. The population had grown significantly from the 1979 census, which showed the total population of reunified Vietnam to be 52.7 million. In 2012, the country’s population was estimated at approximately 90.3 million.
Most of people in Vietnamese use motorcycles as their transport. Therefore, when travelers visit Vietnam, they can use motorbikes to transport as well. In addition, visitors can use other different vehicles such as: taxies, Pedi cabs, airplanes, trains, boats, etc.
The first government of Vietnam was established in the VII century BC. With hard – working and creative labor, Van Lang people had created a civilization which influenced the entire Southeast Asian region.
From the II century BC and lasting more than 1000 years, Vietnam was dominated by northern dynasties. The victory of Bach Dang in 938 opened a new chapter in Vietnamese History. Under the Ngo dynasty (938-965), the Dinh dynasty (969 – 979), the Tien Le dynasty (980 – 1009), the centralized government was set.
After that, Vietnam started a period of revival and development with the national name was Dai Viet. Under the Ly dynasty (1009 – 1226), the Tran dynasty (1226 – 1400), the Ho dynasty (1400 – 1407), the Le So dynasty (1428 – 1527); Dai Viet was known as a prosperous nation in Asia. In this period, Thang Long (Ha Noi nowadays) was officially recognized as the capital of Dai Viet with “the edict on the Transfer of the Capital” wrote by Cong Uan Ly in 1010.
In the beginning of the XIX century, western countries started invading other countries and Vietnam was one of those countries. From 1858 to 1945, Vietnam became a semi – feudal semi – colonial country for nearly 100 years.
The birth of the Communist Party of Vietnam on February 3rd 1930 was the important milestone on the history of Vietnam. On August 1945, under the leadership of the Communist Party of Vietnam in which the leader was Ho Chi Minh, Vietnamese people won an uprising to take the government down and established the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on September 2nd 1945.
After the next 30 years fighting for the unification of Vietnam, Vietnamese won the battle and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam changed to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on April 25th 1976.